There are many techniques commonly used to achieve the level of focus needed for projection. Most use some form of concentration method or whole body breathing technique.
The Rope MethodEdit
The Rope method involves lying down straight on your back and visualising a rope suspended from the roof. You then visualise your consciousness in the form of a glowing version of your own body. Visualise yourself climbing and pulling yourself out of your body. There are also many other techniques you can use to Astral Project. By doing your own research combined with practice you will find one that is more conducive to you.
One technique is to go into deep meditation.
First, get into any position that you may like, whether is is sitting or laying down, just make sure that you are in a position that is most comfortable for you. Then begin to meditate and clear your mind. After a while you will feel very relaxed. Once relaxed, imagine a vantage point by simply looking ahead. Focus all your mental energy at that point. You may see a vague point but it is not necessary. It will be hard the first couple of times but stay consistent. As you begin to focus you may start to see a vortex, a spinning energy. This is your energy that you are creating which means that you are on the right track. Do not lose focus, the vortex will get larger and larger. Eventually, with maintained concentration you will then begin to feel the classic symptoms that usually occur before a projection. Loud ringing in ears, hums, you may even feel a presence around you. Furthermore, you will feel disoriented, vibrations going through your whole body and paralysis. Learn to embrace these feelings and not fear because then the process may stop. When you are at this step imagine yourself leaving your body. Personally, I imagine myself twisting out and that helps. Many people use the rope method, others simply imagine a place. Just remember to stay focused because at this point it is very easy to lose consciousness and drift to sleep. With practice and prevalence you will have an OBE, out of body experience.
The Falling MethodEdit
The Falling Method consist of you laying down on your back in a comfortable position. Try to wear very light clothes and if you have to have something covering you, try to use only a sheet or a light blanket. Lay in a very relaxed position with arms at your side and begin breathing slowly and deeply. You may notice that your needing to breath may slow down considerably. There may even be times where you dont feel like your are breathing at all but it is ok. Your body will know when to breath. When you are in a very relaxed state, try to induce a falling sensation as though you are falling through the bed (or whatever you are laying on). This may scare you as it can actually feel like you are falling. Just continue the sensations throughout your hands, arms, feet, legs, chest, and head. Every part of your body needs to feel like you are falling. Keep this up until you either astrally fall out of your body or you begin to feel the projection sensations... paralysis, hearing sounds not normal in your enviroment, a feeling of electricity moving up your spine, ect, ect. If succeeded, you would project out of the body and free to go where you wish whether it be to explore, learn, or help others.
The Falling Rope MethodEdit
This method is somewhat inbetween both the rope method AND the falling method. Start off as shown in the methods above. When you get to the state where you feel totally relaxed (many feel vibrations, a sign you are on the right track), imagine you are falling. Try to feel the sensation as realisticly as possible, then imagine you suddenly grab onto a rope, which is moving upward, jerking yourself out of your physical body. This technique can also be used in combination with the Brain Noise technique, using that method to put yourself into the relaxed or vibrational state.
Brain noise techniqueEdit
First you need to be relaxed, so to start with do some stretches on each muscle for at least ten seconds (use google to find stretch demonstrations). Then after that, tense your muscles one by one for about ten seconds again, this will release tension. Take a couple of deep breaths; as deep as you can using stomach I.e 'pot bellied breaths'. Now what you need to do is concentrate on the internal noise that seems to appear at the back of the head (for me). Keep doing this and it will draw attention away from salivation and muscle tension. After a while (10 mins aprox) the pitch will get louder and sleep paralysis will kick in. Then follow a standard separation technique.
Hemi sync are sound tracks that can be used to alter ones state of cosciousness. Two types exist; Binaural beats and Isochronic tones. There are files out there that are specifically targeted at meditation and astral projection which can both be used to have OBEs and APs. They alter your brains natural brain wave pattern to induce the required state for projections to happen. You still have to practice and try, it just shortens the time required to project (short and long term). Some effect of listenening to binaural beats is perceiving sounds that are impossible for the human ear to hear. There are some free one out there at www.iso-tones.com